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OADD 2180 - Major Oceanic Environmental Challenges: A Multi-Disciplinary Scientific Perspective

Type d'enseignement : Seminar

Semester : Autumn 2017-2018

Number of hours : 24

Language of tuition : English

Voir les plans de cours et bibliographies

Pre-requisite

aucun

Course Description

The Earth is covered at 71% by the Ocean which represents the largest reservoir of water, heat and life on the planet. The ocean has the greatest capacity to absorb the excess CO2 and warming and is a key component for global economy and coastal populations. Due to many anthropogenic activities (greenhouse gases emissions, land use, exploitation of marine resources…), the ocean is encountering dramatic changes at regional and global scales that create significant feedbacks on the Earth's system functioning as well as many impacts for human societies.
In this course the students will gain an integrated view of the scientific concepts behind the major challenges the ocean is currently facing and their relations with physics (ocean circulation and climate), chemistry (acidification, deoxygenation and carbon cycle) and marine life (from ecosystems to fisheries)

Teachers

  • CARDINAL, Damien (Professeur des universités)
  • KOUBBI, Philippe (Professeur des universités)
  • SPEICH, Sabrina (Professeur des universités)

Pedagogical format

Interactive classes with time dedicated for discussion. Use of flipped classroom and quizz for most sessions.
All slides will be made available as pdf before the course.

Course validation

The evaluation will be based on:

1/ Oral presentations following flipped classroom approach (30%): before each session a group of students will prepare and present a part of the course that will then be discussed,
2/ short exams (quizz) will be made to check understanding of the previous classes (30%),
3 /Each student will choose a regional / local issue in relation with the ocean and prepare a flyer (size B5) to raise awareness of the public (40%)

Required reading

Lectures will be given with the course outline

Plans de cours et bibliographies

Part 1: How climate change impacts ocean physics and global climat


Scientific concepts:
Meridional Overturning Circulation, heat and salt budgets, sea-level rise, extreme events and inter-annual variability (El-Nino...), impacts.

Part 2: What are the changes of the biogeochemical functioning of the ocean?

What are their regional / global impacts and feedbacks?
 Scientific concepts: 
Carbon stock and acidification, oxygen minimum / dead zones, eutrophication and pollution, impacts on nutrients budgets, ecosystems, coastal population…

Part 3: Change of life of marine organisms

What are the most threatened ecosystems? 
Scientific concepts: 
Biodiversity, adaptation, conservation and exploitation of biological resources, impacts.

Part 4: Marine geo-engineering: the ocean as means against global warming or an even worse threat?

Scientific concepts:
Feasibility and potential impacts of marine geo-engineering will be shown under each previous Parts whenever relevant.
Recommended Lectures:

  • Scientific Notes on Ocean and Climate Platform https://www.ocean-climate.org/?lang=en
  • http://www.ocean-climate.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/internet-161024_ScientificNotes_Oct2016_BD_ppp.pdf
  • Executive summaries of IPCC Chapters related to Ocean (available at http://ipcc.ch/report/ar5/ ):
  • Rhein, M., et al., 2013: Observations: Ocean (Chap. 3). In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, et al.(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.         
  • Wong et al., 2014: Coastal systems and low-lying areas (Chap. 5). In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 361-409. 
  • Pörtner, et al., 2014: Ocean systems (Chap. 6). In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 411-484.   
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, et al., 2014: The Ocean (Chap. 30). In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Barros, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1655-1731.