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OADD 2180 - Major Oceanic Environmental Challenges : A Multi-Disciplinary Scientific Perspective

Type d'enseignement : Seminar

Semester : Autumn 2018-2019

Number of hours : 24

Language of tuition : English

Voir les plans de cours et bibliographies

Pre-requisite

aucun

Course Description

The Earth is covered at 71% by the Ocean which represents the largest reservoir of water, heat and life on the planet. The ocean has the greatest capacity to absorb the excess CO2 and warming and is a key component for global economy and coastal populations. Due to many anthropogenic activities (greenhouse gases emissions, land use, exploitation of marine resources), the ocean is encountering dramatic changes at regional and global scales that create significant feedbacks on the Earth's system functioning as well as many impacts for human societies. In this course the students will gain an integrated view of the scientific concepts behind the major challenges the ocean is currently facing and their relations with physics (ocean circulation and climate), chemistry (acidification, deoxygenation and carbon cycle) and marine life (from ecosystems to fisheries).

Teachers

  • CARDINAL, Damien (Professor at Sorbonne Université)
  • COTTE, Cedric (Docteur - Maître de Conférence)
  • SPEICH, Sabrina (Professor at ENS)

Pedagogical format

Interactive classes with time dedicated for discussion. Use of flipped classroom and quizz for most sessions. All slides will be made available as pdf before the course.

Course validation

The evaluation will be based on: 1/ oral presentations following flipped classroom approach (15%): before the class a group of students will prepare and present a part of the course that will then be discussed, 2/ short exams (e.g. quiz, short questions) will be made to check understanding of the previous classes (45%), 3/ each student will choose a regional / local issue in relation with the ocean and prepare a flyer (size B5) to raise awareness of the public (40%).

Required reading

Lectures will be given with the course outline

Plans de cours et bibliographies

Part 1: How climate change impacts ocean physics and global climate

Scientific concepts: Meridional Overturning Circulation, heat and salt budgets, sea-level rise, extreme events and inter-annual variability (El-Nino...), impacts.
Part 2: What are the changes of the biogeochemical functioning of the ocean?

What are their regional / global impacts and feedbacks?
Scientific concepts: Carbon stock and acidification, oxygen minimum / dead zones, eutrophication and pollution, impacts on nutrients budgets, ecosystems, coastal population…

Part 3: Change of life of marine organisms  

What are the most threatened ecosystems? 

Scientific concepts: Biodiversity, adaptation, conservation and exploitation of biological resources, impacts.

Part 4: Marine geo-engineering: the ocean as means against global warming or an even worse threat?

Scientific concepts: Feasibility and potential impacts of marine geo-engineering will be shown under each previous Parts whenever relevant.
Recommended Lectures

Scientific Notes on Ocean and Climate Platform

Executive summaries of IPCC Chapters related to Ocean

(available at http: //ipcc.ch/report/ar5/)

  • Rhein, M., et al., 2013: Observations: Ocean (Chap. 3). In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, et al.(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.     
  • Wong et al., 2014: Coastal systems and low-lying areas (Chap. 5). In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 361-409.          
  • Pörtner, et al., 2014: Ocean systems (Chap. 6). In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 411-484.  
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, et al., 2014: The Ocean (Chap. 30). In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Barros, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1655-1731.
  • Longhurst A. (2007) Ecological Geography of the Sea, Academic Press, London.
  • Beaugrand G. (2014) Marine biodiversity, climate variability and global change, Earthscan Oceans, London
  • Constable A.J. et al. (2014) Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota. Global Change Biology, 20, 3004-3025

Biographical informations

Damien CARDINAL is professor in Biogeochemistry and Marine Chemistry at Sorbonne Université (ex-UPMC) since 2010. He is conducted his research at LOCEAN laboratory in Paris (Lab on Ocean and Climate www.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr). Prof. D. Cardinal is an internationally recognized expert of the marine silicon and carbon biogeochemical cycles, more specifically in the Southern Ocean and along the land to ocean continuum. He has been working as a Research Programme Officer at the European Commission and as a scientist in different research institutions in India, Belgium and France. He is involved in several regional, national or international academic or scientific committees. At SU he is in charge of courses in the field of Geosciences, Biogeochemistry and Oceanography for undergraduate, masters and engineers students. He is implementing active pedagogic approaches such as Problem Based Learning, flipped classrooms, Small Private Online Courses and quiz. His personal homepage is www.biogeochemist.eu
Sabrina Speich is Professor of physical oceanography and Climate Sciences. Prof. Speich research interests are mostly centered on the uncovering and understanding of ocean dynamics and its role on climate variability, changes, ecosystems and related impacts. She is a world-recognized expert in ocean modeling as well as in organizing wide programs of in situ observations. She is one of the co-chairs of the CLIVAR Panel (Climate and Ocean - Variability, Predictability, and Change). She is member of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), of the Ocean Observing Panel for Climate (OOPC) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and national committee and initiatives such as the Comité spécialisé pour la recherche marine, maritime et littorale (COMER) Ocean and Climate Platform. Prof. Speich is the Dean of Studies of the ENS Geosciences Department (www.geosciences.ens.fr) where she is in charge of the undergraduate and graduate degrees.
Cédric Cotté is assistant professor in marine ecology at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN). His research, at the interface between physics and biology, is conducted at LOCEA laboratory on the functioning of marine pelagic ecosystems to understand their responses to oceanographic and climate forcing at several scales using an interdisciplinary approach. He leads and participates to several scientific projects on mid- to high trophic levels organisms (from zooplankton to top predators). He is involved in different national and international programs for designing Marine Protected Areas in French and international waters, particularly in the Southern Ocean, and in the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). He is also involved in courses in marine ecology at MNHN, SU, and ENS.